Geotechnical Core Logging

Geotechnial Core Logging is the process of recording rock descriptions on boring logs, where primary means of communicating rock properties are used in the design and construction of underground works including foundations in and on rock, rock slope and tunnel support, and excavations in rock. The quality of rock descriptions can have far‐reaching implications for the success of a project. An appropriate level of detail (as determined by the project‐specific end use objective) must be collected and conveyed.

Important considerations for geotechnical core logging include:

1. Rock descriptions developed for each rock material unit, defined as discrete mass exhibiting a different set of geologic and engineering properties than adjacent materials. Material unit‐based rock core logging minimizes the risk of overlooking design‐critical rock mass conditions.
2. Material unit descriptions should be constructed using a standard descriptive code consisting of well‐defined terminology arranged in a consistent format.
3. Standardization of the rock core logging descriptive code (at least for individual projects) will result in more useful rock descriptions to facilitate geo‐engineering interpretation, spatial correlation of material units, and engineering analysis for developing design recommendations and construction considerations.

The following steps are suggested during the geotechnical core logging process:

1. Clean the core of drilling fluids or mud.
2. Mark major structures, proposed point load testing locations, and depths (every 1-2 metres) on undisturbed core in splits.
3. Photograph the core in the splits (if using triple tube method) with a scale placed in the picture and a whiteboard indicating what depth the core has been obtained from.
4. Complete the Discontinuity and core description logs.
5. Transfer the core from the splits to a labelled core box.
6. Once a core box is full, take a single photograph of the core box with a scale.
7. The steps are detailed in the following sections.

One of the most important things to do at the drill rig is photograph the undisturbed core in the splits. These photos may be used later to confirm televiewer images and will be an invaluable resource on the rock mass and for review of the design work.

Proper core photos require that the core be cleaned prior to photographing. When core is covered in drilling mud, structural information can be obscured making it difficult to determine lithologies. Take the time to properly clean the core. The core should be wet if possible as some structural features do not show up on dry core so make sure to wet it down with a spray bottle or paint brush.

Posted in Geotechnical Engineering | Tagged , | 1 Comment

Site Investigation Companies

Typical site investigation companies design and undertake Ground Investigations to establish ground, groundwater and contamination conditions associated with development sites. These companies deliver high quality Geo Environmental reports providing cost effective, often innovative engineering advice for use in the detailed design and implementation of development projects small and large.

Site investigation companies are typically composed of a group of experts in the field of Geotechnical Engineering. They are a team professionals in the construction industry, including:
• architects and structural engineers
• building surveyors
• housing associations
• developers – both commercial and residential
• local authorities and government agencies
• solicitors and private individuals

Site investigation companies are adaptable to site-specific conditions. On-site investigations and analysis of gathered information is of paramount importance. Geotechnical engineers gather data, such as that from the determined number of soil and rock anchors to be drilled and grouted, computed use of soil nails, rock anchors, shotcrete, seeding and other erosion control materials, and put these data on the framework of the design of the project.

Posted in Ground Investigation | Tagged , , | Comments Off

Geotechnical Laboratory

A common Geotechnical Laboratory provides Geotechnical analysis, surveys, exploration, characterization, experimentation, projects, testing, research, developments, investigations, certifications or studies in finding Geotechnical, Geochemical, or Geophysical analysis that helps in the design of a project that involves Geotechnical engineering. The following is a list of services provided by a Geotechnical Laboratory:

• Geotechnical Characterization Testing
• Soil Mechanics Testing
• Grain Size Testing
• Clay Lumps Testing
• Seismic Reflectance Testing
• Seisimic Refractance Testing
• Resistivity Imaging Testing
Rock Mass Characteristics Testing
• Geological Features Testing
• Time Domain Electromagnetic Survey Testing
• Frequency Domain Electromagnetic Survey Testing
• Ground Penetrating Radar Testing
• Time Domain Electromagnetic Survey Testing
• Borehole Logging Testing
• Land Surveys Testing
• Water Tables Surfaces Testing
• Groundwater Pathways Testing
• Marine Surveys Testing
• Elemental Analysis Testing
• Particle Analysis Testing
• Swell Testing
• Civil Engineering Testing
• Rock Slope Engineering
• Well Test Analysis Testing
• Permeability Testing
• Minerals Ore Analysis Testing
• Permeability Testing
• Durability Testing
• Compressibility Testing
• Swelling Pressure Testing
• Total Shear Strength Testing
• Effective Shear Strength Testing
• Consolidation Testing
• Compactibility Testing
• Angle of Repose Testing
• Rock Mechanics Testing
• Buried Obstructions Testing
• Slope Stability Testing
• Construction Materials Evaluations Testing
• Soil Strength Testing
• Soil Compressibility Testing
• Subsurface Exploration Testing
• Geologic Hazard Identification Testing
• Seismic Hazard Evaluation Testing
• Seepage Analysis Testing
• Tundra Support Studies Testing
• In-situ Testing
• Nuclear Density Testing
• Dredged Materials Testing
• Sediment Characterization Testing
• Grain Size Distribution Testing
• Cement Stability Studies Testing
• Cement Permeability Testing
• Liquid Limits Testing
• Plasticity Testing
• Void-Ratio Testing
• Ash Content Testing
• Hydraulic Conductivity Testing
• Lloyd Kahn TOC Testing
• Oxidation Reduction Potential
• Compaction Testing
• Triaxial Testing
• Field Audits
• Site Inspections Testing
• Geotechnical Investigations
• Lateral Earth Pressures Testing
• Elemental Analysis Testing
• Aluminum analysis and Aluminum testing
• Barium analysis and Braium testing
• Bismuth analysis and Bismuth testing
• Boron analysis and Boron testing
• Cadmium analysis and Cadmium testing
• Calcium analysis and Calcium testing
• Cesium analysis and Cesium testing
• Chromium analysis and Chromium testing
• Cobalt analysis and Cobalt testing
• Fluorine analysis and Fluorine testing
• Gold analysis and Gold testing
• Iron analysis and Iron testing
• Lead analysis and Lead testing
• Lithium analysis and Lithium testing
• Magnesium analysis and Magnesium testing
• Manganese analysis and Manganese testing
• Nickel analysis and Nickel testing
• Phosphorous analysis and Phosphorous testing
• Potassium analysis and Potassium testing
• Selenium analysis and Selenium testing
• Silver analysis and Silver testing
• Sodium analysis and Sodium testing
• Sulfur analysis and Sulfur testing
• Tin analysis and Tin testing
• Titanium analysis and Titanium testing
• Uranium analysis and Uranium testing
• Vanadium analysis and Vanadium testing
• Zinc analysis and Zinc testing
• Zirconium analysis and Zirconium testing

A Geotechnical Laboratory assists academic institutions, government agencies and organizations in finding geotechnology, geochemistry, and geophysical contract laboratories and contract research organizations to perform geotechnical, geophysical, geochemical, analysis, surveys, exploration, characterizations, experimentation, analysis, testing, and research on all your ingredients, components, in-process finished products, and industries such as foundations, construction, buildings, dams, retaining walls, pipelines, lagoons, landfills, footings, caissons or piles, tunnels, underground works, retaining structures, houses, groundwater, wells, underground works, building projects, soil, rocks, stone, minerals, shale, slate, red clay, pumice, gypsum, carbonate sediments, marine sediments, mud, gravel, lithigenous sediments, biogenous sediments, hydrogenous sediments, rock salt, bedrock, pebbles, boulders, sediment, aggregates, granite, rose quartz, marble, alabaster, bluestone, dolomite, flagstone, onyz, groudwater, aquifers, lsandstone, cooper, gold, silver, cement, agates, coal, core, building stones, sand, lime, silt, oil, gas, basalt, limestone, graphite, siltstone, mudstone, oil and gas, environmental, marine, agriculture, etc.

Posted in Geotechnical Engineering | Tagged , , | Comments Off

Geotechnical Investigation

Geotechnical drilling has become a common factor in facilitating and ensuring the success of engineering plans relating to new building and structure construction and more. The 3 most common reasons to order a geotechnical investigation in the commercial construction and in the engineering industry are the following:

1. Geotech drilling is very useful and often required by law to investigate a new building site. To make sure that a site is appropriate for the new construction, a geotechnical investigation makes sure that the soil is safe to build on and that there are no large rocks that could make the structure collapse. Often, laws require that a site be verified for safety before approving a building permit.

2. Besides, safety reasons for ordering a geotechnical and environmental investigation, the second reason to order a geotechnical drilling rig is to facilitate the building of foundations that are far superior to conventional piling. After obtaining soil samples from the geotechnical drillers, geotechnical engineers are able to conceive and elaborate economically sound plans for foundational support that will best support buildings structurally. Based on the results of geotechnical drilling, the foundation construction industry has been dramatically improved and has allowed for ultimate results in the construction of tall buildings, bridges, piers and levees.

3. The third most common reason to order a geotechnical investigation is to detect and assist in the remediation of contaminated soil. Since contaminated oil or water can harm living organisms including people, it is crucial to detect any leakage caused by underground fuel tanks or caused by waste disposal in a careless manner. Geotechnical drilling comes into the picture in phase II of an environmental site assessment. This usually occurs when a site changes owners.

An environmental site assessment is divided into three phases. Phase 1 assessment detects if there is evidence of contamination. It includes research on the history of the site and an onsite investigation and report put together by a qualified environmental consultant. If there is evidence of potential contamination, a phase II investigation is then ordered. This second phase will confirm the presence of contamination and is largely assisted through geotechnical drilling. A phase II environmental investigation includes drilling, sampling, testing and groundwater monitoring through wells installed by the geo tech drillers. Phase III is when remediation is put into place if contamination levels are unacceptable. A phase III investigation will determine which methods can be used to clean up or at least contain the contaminants.

Posted in Geotechnical Engineering | Tagged , , , , | Comments Off

Geotechnical Field Investigation

A Geotechnical Field Investigation involves subsurface investigation that includes drilling and excavation of test pits. It is organized by activities and policies involved prior to, during, and after exploration.

A geotechnical field exploration plan should be formulated before an excavation occurs. The geotechnical designer assigned to the project is responsible to coordinate with the Region Project Office to prepare the way for the field exploration crew to implement the field exploration program. The geotechnical designer also functions as the primary liaison between the region and the Field Exploration Manager (FEM), to keep the FEM informed as the region completes the necessary preparations to begin implementation of the field exploration plan.

The following should be done before any geotechnical field investigation takes place:
1. A proposed exploration plan.
2. Adequate site data to locate test holes and key project features on paper and in the field.
3. Environmental assessment of the site to determine whether or not there is potential to encounter hazardous subsurface materials.
4. Archeological assessment of the site to determine if there is potential to encounter important native artifacts.
5. Right-of-entry’s needed to be obtained before for the proposed drilling.
6. Necessary permits (especially to environmentally sensitive areas).
7. Evaluate access and other issues related to setting up and finalizing the field exploration program.

The geotechnical field investigation conducted by geotechnical engineering consultants helps in the geotechnical design of the project. The geotechnical designer who is overseeing the consultant task assignment is responsible to make sure that the consultants accomplishes the tasks listed above, before any geotechnical field investigation occurs. If the geotechnical engineering consultant needs changes to the field exploration plan, the geotechnical designer is responsible to provide inputs to the team as to the acceptability of the changes.

Posted in Geotechnical Engineering | Tagged , , , | Comments Off

Geotechnical Equipment

Geotechnical equipment is generally employed by geotechnical engineers to study the structure and form of earth materials. This can help in the planning and construction of building foundations, designing earthworks, and constructing oilrigs. Some of the most common types of geotechnical equipment are drilling rigs, surveying equipment, inclinometers, data loggers, and geotechnical engineering software.

When constructing a building or a setting up an oilrig, many careful considerations have to be made concerning how the edifice will fit in the Earth. Geotechnical engineers usually perform these planning and designing tasks, trying to determine the most safe and practical means to integrate the building and earthly materials. Some of the potential problems geotechnical engineers must be aware of are landslides, earthquakes, and sinkholes. For these reasons, there are various types of geotechnical equipment used in the engineering process to help achieve the best results.

There are many types of drills and drilling rigs that are used in geotechnical engineering to excavate and burrow into the ground. This can be done for many reasons, such as laying foundations, collecting samples, and compiling data on geoformation. Some drills are specifically designed for underground drilling, while others are intended for surface drilling. These can feature specialized equipment, like diamond digging implements, to ensure accuracy and efficiency.

An auger drilling rig is often used by geotechnical engineers. This design features a helical screw drill bit that is used by a shaft in the ground. The excess earth is then removed through a borehole. Devices known as data loggers can be attached to drilling rigs. As the name suggests, the logger collects data from the drilling process using a main electronic device and external instruments, or sensors. This can include information such as earth temperature, rock formation patterns, and recording trend data of earth movements.

Inclinometers and tilt sensors are also common types of geotechnical equipment. These tools are generally used for different types of measuring, such as ascertaining the lateral movement of the Earth or the deformation of existing structures. Using technologies such as Micro-Electrical-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) the inclinometer can provide the user with precise data, in good resolution, without interference from exterior factors.

There are also many geotechnical engineering software programs that may be considered as important geotechnical equipment. These programs can allow engineers to closely study the foundations of land or plan structures. The software can help the engineer come up with the best design structure possible, and can also be an invaluable precursor to drilling and construction.

Posted in Geotechnical Engineering | Tagged , , , | Comments Off

Geotechnical Engineering Software

A Geotechnical Engineering Software is a specialized tool for modeling the geographic elements of a site. It is usually required for testing of conditions for a structure or infrastructure virtually before or during planning and design phases. It can also be used for troubleshooting maintenance and repair of a completed structure in changing environmental conditions. Environmental, civil, and structural engineers as well as urban planners and architects use geotechnical engineering software for site planning of a structure or public works project within a particular location.

Read more from this article to know more about Geotechnical Engineering Software.

Environmental engineers use geotechnical engineering software for determining best-use practices for existing conditions as well as for site, ground, or subsurface improvements. Moisture content of soils and materials selection also can be tested, and runoff and retaining walls generally can be factored into engineering calculations. Methods of incorporating natural landscape elements can be considered experimentally from design through ground-breaking in a virtual environment.

Posted in Geotechnical Engineering | Tagged , , | Comments Off

Geotechnical Engineering Firms

There are several geotechnical engineering firms nowadays that have established themselves in the field of Geotechnical Engineering, exploration services, and environmental consulting services worldwide. Their operations are mainly focused on providing geotechnical engineering services, field exploration services, geotechnical laboratories, and development of specialized geotechnical field exploration methods and equipment to deal with the extreme ground conditions.

Most geotechnical engineering firms also provide similar services to the mining, oil, and gas industries, as well as infrastructure development for state, municipal, and bush community clients. They have enhanced their capabilities along the way, and have honed their geologic and engineering strengths to handle more challenging work.

Focus of the business for geotechnical engineering firms would mainly to provide geotechnical designs, engineering and environmental support for pipelines, seasonal ice roads, building and bridge foundations, shore protection, water supply and tailings dams, rural sanitation/water supply, roads and highways, rail, airports, ports and harbors, and power (generation/distribution/transmission). They are uniquely qualified to address the special requirements of facilities, and geotechnical and environmental services, including permitting and compliance.

Posted in Geotechnical Engineering | Tagged , , | Comments Off

Geotechnical Engineering Consultants

Geotechnical Engineering Consultants are the best people to approach when it comes to challenges concerning Geotechnical Engineering. These people have the ability to identify anomalous geological features and provide specialist understanding giving a specific observation, inference, action or decision on the structure and form of earth materials. They basically help in the planning and construction of building foundations, designing earthworks, and constructing of projects on the ground or even on oilrigs.

Geotechnical engineering consultants use common types of geotechnical equipment such as drilling rigs, surveying equipment, inclinometers, data loggers, and computer programs. As they provide an array of services, including oil and gas, mining, and infrastructure markets, their services are mainly focused on the geotechnical design, engineering and environmental support for pipelines, seasonal ice roads, building and bridge foundations, shore protection, water supply and tailings dams, rural sanitation/water supply, roads and highways, rail, airports, ports and harbors, and power (generation/distribution/transmission).

Many geotechnical engineers do very well in their own field but may feel the need for a new challenge. This causes many of them to become geotechnical engineering consultants to do consulting jobs to clients and become their own boss. They could have worked for large corporations, but in many cases, many businesses are hiring them as consultant to handle cases concerning geotechnical engineering work.

Posted in Geotechnical Engineering | Tagged , , , | Comments Off

Geotechnical Engineering Companies

Geotechnical Engineering Companies handle concerns in the field of highly specialized geotechnical works. In regards to problematic or challenging projects, these companies have experienced technical staff made up of engineers and geologists that develop analysis and calculate the stability of rock masses. Both active and passive measures are taken in order to prevent loose and falling rock masses: metallic nets both simple and reinforced, wire rope panels, wire rope wrappings, precise nailing, bar and rod ties, rock fall barriers.

Operating in a field that is both complex and delicate, nothing can be left to chance. Only highly qualified geotechnical engineering companies with their expertise and specialization and great care of human resources guarantee professionalism and safety. For this reason Teico Overseas has concentrated on the quality of its employees. They should always operate with the global standard safety systems.

A typical geotechnical engineering project starts with an evaluation to define the material properties. Geotechnical engineering companies will then conduct a site investigation of soil, rock, fault distribution and bedrock properties on and below an area of interest.

Site Investigations include the evaluation of risk to the environment, property and humans from natural hazards such as rock falls, debris flows, soil liquefaction, sinkholes, earthquakes and landslides. Geotechnical engineering companies then determine and design the type of earthworks, foundations, and/or pavement sub-grades required for the intended works.

Posted in Geotechnical Engineering | Tagged , , | Comments Off